Top 7 Best MPG Mopeds

Are you looking to find the best mpg mopeds on the market? Are you wondering which are the best gas powered scooters? Would you like to conduct a gas scooter USA comparison, between available models – in order to know, which are the best mpg mopeds that might fit your needs perfectly?

Are you looking at purchasing a moped with a specific number of cc’s, for example the best scooter 150cc gas moped that you can find? Here we hope to provide you with the Top 7 best mpg mopeds available right now on the market today, in order to help you come to making a more informed purchase.

We provide specific details on the best mpg mopeds and the best gas powered scooters, your very own gas scooter USA comparison between models, exploring their individual strengths and further details about each moped in a very easy to read and perfectly clear, understandable format!

Right, let’s get started!

1/ First off the block for your best mpg mopeds is the:

Retro Scooter 150cc RR150RT RoadRunner i-Scooter.

The 2007 150cc Retro vespa style Scooter is an awesome looking gas powered moped, it’s fast, reliable and has plenty of legroom for those of you who are somewhat taller.

This retro scooter is an i-Scooter; it comes with a good sized rear trunk to put whatever you need to into it, an alarm system with remote, disk lock anti-theft and comes with a scooter cover. This scooter is low maintenance. Returning 73 miles to the gallon, it has a 1.4 gallon gas tank which will give you a good range. It’s air cooled, 1 cylinder, 4 stroke, 2 valves and maximum speed is 60mph.   Transmission  is continuously variable and is fully automatic. Fuel is Premium 89 + octane only. Oil capacity and type: 0.9 liters / 15W/40 motorcycle grade. The oil change is done after the first 300km and thereafter every 1000km.

The weight of this i-Scooter is 89kg or 196lbs. It’s maximum load is 145kg or 320 lbs. The total length is 191cm or 75″. Seat height is 73cm or 29″. Handlebar height is 93cm or 36″. Comes in a range of colors. A great one for the category of best mpg mopeds returning as mentioned above an economical 73 miles to the gallon. This scooter is street legal in every state except California, be sure to check out local laws. If bought new, it comes with 24 months (2 years) power train parts only guarantee. New prices start around $1100 or thereabouts.

2/ Second up in the best mpg mopeds and best gas powered scooters top 7 is the:

50cc Speedster Scooter.

Returning a whopping 100 miles to the gallon plus, this is an ideal scooter for all your home errands around town. Achieving a respectable 40+ mph, this is the perfect city commuters bike. This is a reliable scooter. This is a reliable, quality scooter; it’s fun to ride and road handling is superb, a very easy scooter to get used to surprisingly quickly. Saves a lot on gas this one! – This is a very, very economical method of transportation!

It’s power comes from a 49.5cc air cooled, 1 cylinder, 4 stroke, 2 valves engine which is pretty quiet too.  Transmission  is continuously variable and is fully automatic. A touch over a 200 mile range on one tank of fuel (2 gallons capacity). Gas – Premium 89 + octane only. Brakes front and rear. The maximum load of the 50cc Speedster Scooter is 145kg / 320lbs. The toal length is 167cm / 69″. Seat height is 75cm / 30″ and the handlebar height is 105cm or 41 inches. An excellent nippy little scooter which qualifies for our top 7 best mpg mopeds of choice. It is street legal in all states except California, check local laws first and comes with a power trains guarantee of 12 months (1 year).

This model will cost you brand new about $900. How long before these best gas powered scooters pay for themselves and start earning You money?!

3/ Next up in the Third pole position is the:

Road Queen 250cc iScooter by RoadRunner

This is truly one of the best mpg mopeds that you can buy, another qualifier for our top 7 ratings of best gas powered scooters. If a gas scooter USA comparison needs to be made, this choice could be high up on your list!

The manufacturer is: RoadRunner.

Boasting a top speed of 75-80mph and returning around 60 miles to the gallon this is a great fun scooter / moped to ride! Comes in a range of awesome eye catching colors, it is very stylish too with it’s sleek, aerodynamic design. These best mpg mopeds are perfect for so many uses, whether commuting to work on a daily basis or even for those slightly longer trips on the road. It will give you a smooth ride with good acceleration.

The engine type is water cooled, 1 cylinder, 4 stroke, 2 valves.  Transmission  is continuously variable and fully automatic. Fuel type is Premium 89 + octane only. The maximum load is 180kg or 400lbs. It’s total length 222cm or 87 inches. Seat height is 73cm or 29 inches. The handlebar height is 103cm or 40 inches.

This is one of the best mpg mopeds that you can get for the money, saving you not only lots of money on gas but giving you a great stable and fully enjoyable ride experience also. Perfect for most adults. It comes with an alarm too. 24 months power train parts only guarantee and street legal for every state except CA, check local laws first.

Prices from close to $2000.

4/ Mid way through the range of best mpg mopeds and best gas powered scooters is the moped / scooter taking our 4th position on the starting grid of mopeds or scooters seriously worth looking at with a view to making a purchase and it is the:

Race Scooter 250cc 19HP – RR i-Scooter, manufactured by RoadRunner Scooters.

Prices for this lean, mean racing machine also start at an amazingly low $2000. With a top speed of 85mph this scooter really does take some beating supplied from it’s 19HP engine. With this supremely quick scooter you need not balk at the idea of wasting money on gas, for it still will return for you, a very cool and surprisingly very high number of miles to the gallon.

This scooter is the epitome of stylish good looks and comes in a range of great awesome colors, something to suit everyone’s individual tastes. Acceleration is smooth and very quick at picking up speed.  Transmission  is continuously variable and once again, fully automatic. The engine type is water cooled, 1 cylinder, 4 stroke, 2 valves. Very, very little vibration even at higher speeds. Great specification package. If you are wanting to know which moped is right for you, these best mpg mopeds are certainly worth your very serious consideration. Perfect for near everyone!

Prices start at an amazingly low price under $2000!

Well able to covey most adults in comfort and with ease even upon winding roads or hilly terrain. Loaded with features also which include:

MP3 player, Speakers, Over-Sized Trunk, Pre-Installed Alarm with Remote, Disk Lock and Waterproof Cover. What a great package!

Maximum load is 400lbs. Length is 77 inches total. Seat height 31 inches. Handlebar height 40 inches. Street legal in every state other than CA, check your local laws first and comes with a 24 months, 2 years guarantee for the power train parts only.

An awesome scooter – perfect for someone like you!

Heading towards the back of the grid now, but certainly not least are our final 3 best mpg mopeds and best gas powered scooters. These final three choices will complete our first part gas scooter USA comparison review and best advice, buying tips guide.

In fifth place then, number:

5/ Engine rip roaring to go in the line up of the top 7 best mpg mopeds in fifth position (remember, these are presented to you in no particular order), is the:

150cc Racer Scooter by TANK.

A well balanced and perfectly well behaved scooter returning a good top end speed of 65mph and returning just for you, a quite awesome and astonishing 90 miles to the gallon. Just three dollars of gas in this scooter will take you far. Perfect for light shopping trips or quick errands around your city. Never get stuck in traffic again! Not only will you save money on gas but you will save time too, which means that you can either make even more money from each day or spend the valuable time saved with your family and friends, doing what is more important to you, rather than sitting in a traffic jam wasting gas and time getting frustrated.

These best mpg mopeds, the 150cc Racer Scooter by TANK is a great all round model to choose for the average user. Acceleration is smooth, the road handling is very good, the ride stable, very little vibration, great rider comfort, just perfect for breezing around on these hot summer days and nights. This scooter is not only very well balanced and designed, it is very low maintenance and comes at a very economical best deal price new at around $1,250 – now that’s what I call a bargain!

Capable of carrying most adults in comfort, the bike comes with extra accessories too.

Engine is Single Cylinder, 4 Stroke, 149.7CC 8.84 HP. Air cooled. Electric or ignition start.  Transmission  is automatic clutchless centrifugal belt drive. Front brake is hydraulic disc brake with ABS and the rear braking system is a hydraulic disc brake. Wheel base 53″. Seat height 30″. Ground clearance 6″. Warranty is 1 year engine and drive train parts only. Alarm and remote control are included.

At around $1,250 this moped / scooter is a steal and will pay for itself in no time at all!

Highway legal in CA and most other states – Check local law. Motorcycle license required in most states.

6/ Second to last in our recommendations in sixth place for the best mpg mopeds and best gas powered scooters is the:

Honda CT70 Replica – Street Legal Mini Bike 110cc

Not intended for highway use (although can be used on highways if you wish), check local laws (see below). This one is ideal for private estates, gated communities, RV and camping grounds, light trail use etc and returns a whopping and incredible 108 miles to the gallon! Certainly it’s not going to set the world alight with any blisteringly hot world records for speed, nevertheless it will return for you 55 miles per hour and can easily convey all you big guys around with a degree of comfort.

Looks wise, it’s not bad, in fact, some might call it pretty stylish in it’s own inimitable way. With a 110cc 7.1hp engine, 4 stroke and manufactured by Lifan, reliability itself is assured for you.

Electric and kick start, 4 speed manual clutch, drum brakes, 7″ ground clearance, it comes with a warranty of 1 year parts only engine & drive train – 30 days limited labor.

Street and highway legal in all States – Check local law. Not legal in California. A motorcycle license required in most States. A great little machine guaranteed to give you years of pleasure and use.

Cost just under $1000!!

Last but not least in our top 7 best mpg mopeds and best gas powered scooters is finally our number:

7/ And what a beautiful looking and totally awesome best mpg moped we have here, the one and only:

Lifan motorcycle Enduro Trail Bike 200cc.

Yours for just under $1,450. This is a proper full size dual purpose Enduro dirt bike. If you have been looking for a wickedly cool dual purpose bike to cruise around and go off road, then you need look no further, we’ve got your ultimate motor bike right here. This is an awesome, supreme, top quality motorcycle by Lifan. It has style, speed and complete and utter reliability. The Lifan 200 cubic centimeters 163FML-2 mono cylinder 16.1 HP motorcycle engine punches out plenty of power to the rear wheel making it not only quick but lots of fun too, to ride on or upon off road conditions. Top speed is a little over 65mph. And if you want to save on gas, this motorcycle is very fuel efficient, deliverly an astonishing 102MPG. Can you better that?! That’s fantastic!

Engine is Single cylinder 4 Stroke, 196.9CC model 163FML-2. Maximum power is 16.1 HP at 8000 RPM. Max Torque 14.5 N.m at 6500 RPM. Electric and kick start. 5 speed manual clutch on the  transmission . Chain drive. Steel frame. Hydraulic disc brake on the front, on the rear, drum brake. Seat height 29 inches. Ground clearance 8 inches minimum. A standard warranty: 6 months parts only engine & drive train – 30 days limited labor. Speed 60-70mph. Over 100 MPG. Highway legal in most states – Check local law. Motorcycle license required in most US states. Color choice is red or blue.

This concludes out top 7 best mpg mopeds article, which we hope has been useful to a good degree for you.

Remember, before taking to the highway, it is highly advised that you undertake some level of training first by fully qualified instructors, this will ensure your safety to a better degree and the safety of other road users too. Also remember that protective clothing is there to do just that, protect you – a safety motorcycle helmet is recommended at all times.

We hope that you have enjoyed our top 7 best mpg mopeds review guide to the best gas powered scooters, so that you can now make a more informed decision upon the gas scooter that will fit your needs perfectly.

Buying a gas powered scooter potentially will save you shed loads of cash and the savings made, particularly with today’s very high gas prices, given time will be quite considerable.

When out on the road, whatever your mode of transport do please ride with care, concentration and consideration for others at all times!

How to Detect If Someone Put a GPS Tracking Device on My Car?

If you’re like many people, you may be wondering how to detect if someone has placed a GPS tracking device on your vehicle. GPS Tracking devices have gotten so small, they are commonly the size of a pack of cigarettes, and some are even as small as a quarter! With devices that small, they can be hard to detect, especially if you’ve got a large vehicle.

The first thing you need to know is that there are two different types GPS tracking devices:

GPS “Loggers”

A GPS Logger is a passive device, meaning that it doesn’t actively transmit your GPS location. This means whoever put a GPS logger on your car will have to place it on your car, and then retrieve it later in order to view the driving data, which is stored on the device. A popular example of this is the Sleuthgear iTrail GPS Logger, which is only 1.5″X1.5″ big.

GPS “Trackers”

A GPS Tracker is an active device, meaning that it actively transmits your location “live”, usually to a secure website, where the person who placed it there can view your location and driving information via a web browser or special program. Once they put it on there, they do not have to retrieve it, they can just view the information online. They will likely come back later though, because the battery life on active tracker is usually less than 30 days.

Here’s where knowing the difference between the two types of tracking devices is important. A GPS Logger (like the iTrail GPS) can only be detected manually – meaning you’ll have to physically search for it. The reason for this is because since they don’t actively transmit a signal (they just store data to the device), then a bug detector or bug sweeper won’t be able to pick up any kind of transmission or signal. If you suspect that you might have a GPS logger on your vehicle, the first place to look for it is UNDER THE VEHICLE. This is the most popular place to hide a GPS tracking device, and is accomplished by placing the device inside a magnetic case, which securely attaches to the metal on the underside of your vehicle. Other places to look are in the glove box, center console, and the truck (including under the spare tire).

If you suspect that you might have an active GPS Tracker on your car, a manual search is always the first step. Look under the vehicle, in the glove box, and in the trunk. These type of units are usually bigger than GPS Loggers because they need a bigger battery in order to actively transmit a signal. If you don’t have time to do a manual search, you’re in luck, because active GPS Trackers can be easily detected by a GPS Detector.

A GPS Detector is a handheld device that is usually battery powered that allows you to “sweep” your vehicle (or wherever else you want to locate a GPS Tracker) and will alert you when it detects a transmitting GPS signal that is sending out your location. There is an adjustable sensitivity knob that allows you to hone in on the exact location of the tracker, so you can remove it from your vehicle.

A GPS detection device will also detect cell phone signals, because cell phones are commonly used as makeshift GPS tracking devices, since owners of cell phones can often use a “locate” feature of their phone to find out where it is at.

So if you want to find out if someone has placed a GPS tracking device on your car, first conduct a manual search, and for a quicker and easier search, use a GPS Detector.

Video Conferences

Videoconferences are groupware technologies that enable people in two or more locations to interact simultaneously by merging video, voice call, file sharing, instant messaging, and internet co-browsing across both Windows & Mac operating systems. Thanks to advancements high speed web connectivity, videoconferences are now more widely available at a lower cost. New, cheaper technologies such as the webcam, software compression and affordable broadband connections allow even personal users – not just business users – to enjoy video conferencing.

More importantly, video conferences have become extremely helpful in the field of medicine. It is now being applied to telemedicine – it is used to help diagnose patients remotely, conduct remote consultation, and transmit medical images and other pressing data all in real time.

Peripheral applications such as microscopes with built-in digital cameras, ultrasound tools, “videoendoscopes,” and many other related technologies can be connected to videoconferencing technology to transmit patient data. Stay-at-home patients can easily access nurses and physicians especially during medical emergency. Videoconferences also allow medical professionals to discuss cases and consult each other across large distances. Best of all, videoconferences allow patients in remote rural areas to get modern diagnosis without leaving their localities.

Videoconferences are now also widely available in schools and other educational institutions. Students, teachers and lecturers from the world over can hold classes together and even transmit these classes to isolated locations. Videoconferences have also lowered the costs of education, because students gain access to classes that their schools cannot afford to offer within their own vicinity for a lower cost.

Foreign language classes, for example, can be conducted from a remote university and transmitted to a recipient school. In some cases, videoconferences can replace field trips – economically disadvantaged students who cannot go personally to zoos, museums or to trips to other countries can immerse themselves in the same experience through the technology.

Legal Protection for Foreign Direct Investments (FDIs) in Nigeria

For healthy and continuous in flow of Foreign Direct Investments (FDIs) to Nigeria, the country has over the years put in place friendly legal framework for Foreign Direct Investments (FDIs) protection.

In this Foreign Investors’ Guidelines for Doing Business in Nigeria Series, we shall be examining the legal mechanisms put in place for the purpose of encouraging an increasing FDIs inflow and ensuring foreign investors’ confidence in the country.

We shall be discussing foreign investors’ protections ranging from certainty of arbitral proceedings and other dispute resolution mechanisms in the country.

The fact with modern economic systems is that no country can be an island economically; Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) protection is very essential to the successful attainment of foreign investors’ business objective(s) and economic development of any economy.

There are steps that host countries can lawfully take in the exercise of their sovereignty and power can lead to depriving foreign investors of reaping the fruits of their investments.

Host government actions that can affect foreign investment adversely includes nationalization; the act of a government taking control of a private enterprise and converting it to state or public ownership.

Expropriation; the act of a government taking possession of or otherwise meddling with privately held assets or property for the use and benefit of the public, or in the public interest.

The legislative and administrative acts of the government as government action can also have adverse effects on foreign investors’ businesses in Nigeria.

This is the indirect or creeping form of expropriation. The only difference is that, it mode of operation shifted attention from the physical and actual taking-over of an investor’s assets to the legislative and administrative acts of the government.

While not depriving a foreign investor of the ownership of an asset in this type of government control, it is capable of significantly reducing the value of properties and investments of the foreign owner.

Foreign investors don’t like investing in country’s with risk such as arbitrary revocation of a license; permit or a concession after the investor has made the requisite investments.

The advancement and expansion of international business relationships and the importance of foreign direct investment to the economic development of Nigeria has made the country to put in place some foreign business protection laws for the purpose of encouraging foreign investors.

Nigeria has performed greatly in providing protections to potential foreign investors.

Investment Treaties

In spite of the provisions of Section 12 of the Nigerian Constitution, investment treaties entered by the country are binding on, and enforceable against Nigeria upon ratification under the principle of ‘pacta sunt servanda’.

Also, by a literal application of Article 31 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties which provides that a treaty shall be interpreted in good faith in agreement with the ordinary meaning to be given to the terms of the treaty.

Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs): Nigeria entered into its first Bilateral Investment Treaty (BIT) with Germany in 1979 which came into force in 1986.

According to finding from my investigation Nigeria has entered into 28 Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs) between 1986 and November, 2015.

Of the total number, 13 are currently in force, 14 are signed and 1 repealed. The Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs) currently in force are the ones entered into with Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Romania, Serbia, Spain, South Korea, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, and United Kingdom.

The 14 BITs which have been signed by Nigeria but are yet to enter into operation were signed as far as back as 1996.

In addition to the usual investment protection standards, these BITs provide that a contracting state shall not damage by irrational or unfair means the maintenance, management, disposal of investment in its territory of nationals or companies of the other Contracting Party.

And the same recompense for losses suffered due to a safety event made to a domestic investor shall be allowed to the investor from the other contracting state.

These BITs also provide for the right of subrogation allowing foreign investors to obtain suitable investment insurance and for these investment insurance providers to seek remedy on their behalf from Nigeria.

The BITs that are presently in force have also made satisfactory requirements for the standard investment protection. These include fair and equitable treatment, umbrella clauses, most favoured nation status, national treatment, obligations against arbitrary and discriminatory measures and security.

Multi-lateral Investment Treaties (MITs): Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) treaty is one of the famous MITs Nigeria have entered. The ECOWAS treaty was signed on 28th May 1975; it came in into force on the 20th June, 1975.

The treaty currently has 15 signatories who are member states of ECOWAS.

Article 2 of the Treaty gives ‘Community Enterprise’ status to businesses whose equity capital is owned by two or more member states, and citizens or institutions of the Community.

Article 16 of the Treaty provides that Community Enterprise shall be accorded favourable treatment with regards to incentives and advantages, and shall not be nationalised or expropriated by the government of any member state except for valid reasons of public interest, and subject to the payment of prompt and adequate compensation.

Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC) investment treaty is another MIT Nigeria has entered into in relation with providing favourable conditions for foreign investments in the country.

OIC is a treaty with an Agreement on Promotion, Protection and Guarantee of Investments among Member States of the Organization of the Islamic Conference, which came into force in September, 1986.

Chapter 2 of the Treaty mandates all member states of the Organization of Islamic Countries to provide adequate security and protection to the invested capital of an investor who is a national of another contracting member state.

The terms of protection specifically include the enjoyment of equal treatment, undertaking not to adopt measures that may directly or indirectly affect the ownership of the investor’s capital or investment and not to expropriate any investment except it is in the public interest and on prompt payment of adequate compensation.

Host states are further obligated to guarantee free repatriation of any capital and returns due to an investor.

Conventions to which Nigeria is a Signatory:

The country is signatory to a number of Conventions which have been entered into for the purposes of protecting foreign direct investment.

The most significant convention in this regard is the Convention for the Settlement of Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of Other States (ICSID Convention).

International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) as an arbitral institution under the World Bank Group is a fully integrated, self-contained arbitration institution that provides standard arbitration clauses, arbitration proceedings rules, arrangements for venues, financial arrangements and administrative supporting including the appointment of arbitrators to parties.

Convention for the Settlement of Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of Other States (ICSID) primarily provides for the settlement of investment disputes between investors and sovereign host states.

It has also taken the necessary legislative measures to make the Convention’s resolution effective in Nigeria by enacting it as a domestic legislature in the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (Enforcement of Awards) Decree No. 49 of 1967.

Another significant investment protection convention Nigeria has entered into is the New York Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards.

New York Convention was adopted by the United Nations in June, 1958 and it mandates domestic courts in signatory countries to give effect to arbitration agreements, and to also recognise and enforce valid arbitral awards given in other signatory states.

The New York Convention in other words is particularly significant for the enforcement of arbitral awards resulting from non-ICSID investment arbitration proceedings.

In an attempt to bring into conscious awareness the legal guidelines to undertaking business in Nigeria to intended foreign investors, we shall specifically be reviewing domestic legislations and investment treaties which collectively make up the legal framework for foreign investment protection in the country.

The Domestic Legal Framework:

The notable investment legislation in Nigeria is the Nigerian Investment Promotion Commission Act, CAP N117 Laws of the Federation of Nigeria (“NIPC Act”).

The NIPC Act provides the fundamental and suitable legal framework for the protection of foreign investors in the country. Part 5 of the NIPC Act provides that foreigners may invest and participate in any enterprise in Nigeria.

They are assured unrestricted transfer of funds attributable to the investment such as profits, dividends, payments in respect of loan servicing, and the remittance of proceeds obtained from the sale or liquidation of assets or any interest in the venture through an approved dealer in freely convertible currency.

Section 25 of the NIPC Act clearly provides that no enterprise shall be expropriated or nationalised without prompt payment of compensation; the same section also provides a protection clause to an investor to claim “creeping” expropriation by establishing that the acts complained of indirectly results to expropriation or have expropriatory tendency.

Lastly, the NIPC Act provides that disputes between a foreign investor and any government in Nigeria arising from an investment shall be submitted to arbitration within the framework of any investment treaty entered into between the government of Nigeria and any state of which the foreign investor is a national.

It further provides that where there is a disagreement between the Nigerian government and the foreign investor on the mode of dispute settlement, the dispute shall be submitted to ICSID for arbitration.

Foreign investor is thus at liberty in Nigeria to institute arbitration proceedings against a government even after bringing a claim or counterclaim against the government in a court or domestic arbitration.

Another domestic legislation that provides protection to foreign investors is the Foreign Exchange (Monitoring and Miscellaneous Provisions Act) CAP F34.

Section 15 of this Act provides that any person may invest in any business venture with foreign currency or capital imported into Nigeria through an authorized dealer who will issue a Certificate of Capital Importation to the foreign investor.

Sub-section (4) of the same section in addition guarantees unconditional transferability of funds in freely convertible currency of any such monies arising from an investment made in Nigeria with foreign currency, including dividends and profits, payments in respect of loan servicing, and remittances of the proceeds of sale or liquidation of assets.

A similar provision on repatriation is also found in Section 18 of the Nigeria Export Processing Zones Act, CAPN107 (“NEPZA Act”).

Section 18 of the NEPZA Act provides that foreign investors who invest in outlined businesses within an export zone shall be eligible to remit profits and dividends earned in the zone and repatriate foreign capital investment at any time with capital appreciation of the investments.

Other foreign investors’ protection laws are the Arbitration and Conciliation Act. The act gives foreign investors the opportunity to determine the mode of settling disputes that may arise out of their investments without resort to litigation in domestic (Nigeria) courts.

With the anticipation that such settlement will unfailingly and efficiently protect and enforce the rights of foreign investors and their investments provides a framework for domestic arbitration it also makes provisions for international commercial arbitration which is more preferable by foreign investors.

Section 56(2) (d) defines ‘international arbitration’ to include any arbitration that the parties have expressly agreed in the arbitration agreement to treat as international arbitration. The Act provides that every arbitration award is capable of enforcement under the New York Convention.

Nigeria’s entries into these investment treaties and its enactment of the Conventions into domestic legislation have made the protection mechanism part of Nigeria’s legal framework for protection of Foreign Direct Investments (FDIs) friendly and convenient to actual and potential foreign investors.

Is Your Motorcycle Fully Protected?

Are you really sure your motorcycle is fully protected?

As, no doubt you know, the oil you use in your motorcycle lubricates the engine and the   transmission . If you do not keep close track and regularly change that oil you could be looking at a huge bill from the repair shop. Could be “just” an engine or “just” a  transmission  or both.

Clean oil is vital to engine performance and durability. Oil must lubricate, cool and clean the engine as it circulates and in order to remain effective, it must be filtered as it cycles.

What about the oil filter you use?

If you do use a long-life oil, does your filter last as long as the oil?

Some filters are only good for 3,000 miles. Some filters seem to be good for nothing. Some filters are good for as long as your oil will last. Is the filter available in CHROME? I know I like a lot of chrome on my bike, even if it is “just an oil filter”!

What is that filter made of?

The unique construction and full-synthetic media of AMSOIL Ea Motorcycle Oil Filters allow them to provide unmatched performance in motorcycles and other power sports equipment. EaOM Filters last longer, stop smaller dirt particles and offer less restriction than other filters. Ea Motorcycle Oil Filters provide filtering efficiency of 98.7 percent at 15 microns, outperforming the best cellulose/synthetic blend media on the market. And did I ask: Is your filter available in CHROME?

What are you protecting your paint with?

Genital Wart Facts

Genital warts are a type of wart that are only found on your private parts of the body. The genital wart is one that will be easily recognized. Genital warts are also known as veneral warts and also as condylmata acuminata. Warts in this manner are caused by a skin infection, which is known as PHV infection. It is possible to have the HPV infection without having genital warts. Genital warts are often passed along during sexual intercourse, but not all those who have genital warts are going to know they are infected until the warts are bigger and a little more painful.

Warts are a virus, that can be passed by touching, sitting and skin to skin contact. The most common types of warts are seen on people’s hands and feet, which are a different form of a wart but are generally the same thing if you are wondering what genital warts really are.

Warts are associated with the tumors that form under and in the skin. The tumors are forms of the HPV infection, and will form warts as the body rids the infection from the body. If you have warts on the hand or on the feet, you are not going to spread this to your genitals. If you know someone who has genital warts, they are not going to give you warts on your hands and the same goes the other way around.

For the woman, if you have genital warts, they will appear on the inside and the outside of the vagina. If the woman has anal sex, the genital warts could appear an the anus, and the same is for the man. If a man is having anal sex with another, the genital warts could appear on the anus area as well.

The warts will appear in the same area, taking a long time to spread out. Sometimes the warts will disappear on their own, but only in rare cases often times the genital warts will spread becoming crusty and become large areas of warts over the private areas of a male or female. If you have genital warts, and someone performs oral sex, the genital warts can be transmitted to that person. Genital warts can be treated by a doctor, and with medications. If not treated, often times genital warts can become troublesome not only for the person suffering with them, but for people you love and want to share that special relationship with.

If you have sex with someone that you later finds out has genital warts, you most likely are going to end up with genital warts are well. It can take any where from one month to three months for genital warts to appear and become large enough for a person to notice them. Always protect yourself by avoiding having sex with anyone you don’t know or trust not to have genital warts.

You can find more info about genital warts on

http://www.all-about-genital-wart.com/

What Is The Difference Between Investment Management and Stockbrokers?

The investment services industry can be daunting and ambiguous for individuals who seek a return on their capital. After working hard earning your wealth, it is important to understand the different services offered by professionals and what solutions fit you personally. One of the main questions we get asked here is:

“What is the difference between investment management and stockbrokers?”

Firstly, let’s discuss what stockbrokers are – we all have a much better, clearer, idea of what they do and who they represent. Stockbrokers are regulated firms that offer financial advice to their clients. A stockbroker buys and sells equities and other securities like bonds, CFDs, Futures and Options on behalf of their clients in return for a fee or commission. A brokerage / stockbroker will receive a fee on each transaction, whether the idea is profitable or not.

A brokerage can specialise in any investment niche they wish for example:

  • FTSE All-Share stocks,
  • AIM stocks,
  • European Stocks,
  • Asian Stocks,
  • US Stocks
  • Combinations of the above
  • Straight equities,
  • Straight derivative trading (CFDs, Futures & Options)

The main reason why investors choose stockbrokers over any other professional investment service is simply down to control. Due to the nature of a brokerage firm, they can only execute a trade after you instruct them to do so. This means it is impossible for a brokerage to keep buying and selling securities without you knowing – known as churning for commission. This doesn’t however prevent stockbrokers providing you with several new ideas a week and switching your positions to a new idea.

However, there are natural flaws with the brokerage industry is that because trading ideas can only be executed after being instructed to list a few flaws;-

  • you may miss out of good opportunities due to moves in the market,
  • you may get in a couple of days later because you were busy and not make any money after fees,
  • you may receive a call to close a position but unable to without your say so.

The above are examples that can happen when investing with brokerage firms, but this is due to the reliance of gaining authorisation from their clients. So if you are ultra busy or travel a lot then you could potentially miss out on opportunities to buy or sell.

What are investment managers?

Now we understand what stockbrokers / brokerage firms are about, let’s discuss what investment management services can do for individuals.

Investment management firms run differently to brokerages. The core aspect to these services is that the professional investment managers use their discretion to make investment decisions. As a client of an investment management firm you will go through a rigorous client on boarding process (just like a brokerage firm) to understand your investment goals, understanding of the services being used, risk profile, angering to the investment mandate and allowing the service to manage your equity portfolio. The sign up with the service may seem long winded but it’s in your best interest to ensure the service is suitable and appropriate for you. In reality, it’s not a long winded process at all. Once you agree to the services offered then you will only be updated on the on-going account data and portfolio reporting in a timely manner. This means no phone calls to disrupt your day-to-day activities and allows the professionals to focus on your portfolio.

Investment management firms usually have specific portfolios with a track record, into which you can invest your capital according to you appetite for risk. These portfolios will focus on specific securities, economies, risk and type of investing (income, capital growth or balanced). All of this would be discussed prior or during the application process.

Another method used by investment management firms is different strategies implemented by their portfolio managers. These strategies are systematic and go through thorough analysis before investment decisions are made.

The fees usually associated with investment management firms can vary from each firm. There are three common types of fees and are usually combined, fees can be;-

  • Assets Under Management Fee – This is where you pay a percentage of the portfolio per year to the firm, usually an annual fee. E.g) 1% AUM Fee on £1,000,000 is £10,000 per year.
  • Transaction Fee – This is a fee associated with each transaction made through your portfolio – similar to the brokerage firm’s commission.
  • Percentage of Profits Fee – This is where any closed profits generated over a set time will be charged to the firm. E.g) 10% PoP Fee – the firm generates you closed profit of £10,000 in one quarter – you will be charged £1,000.

The main benefits provided from investment management firms is that after the service understands your needs and tailors the service around you, it is their job to build a portfolio around you. It is also the job of the investment management firm to adhere to the investment mandate you agreed on, we’ll take about this later, so you understand of the time frame given what you should expect. Another bonus why high-net worth individuals choose investment management services is because they are not hassled by phone calls every other day with a new investment idea.

The difference…

The main difference between investment management and stockbroking firms is:

  • Investment Managers offers discretionary services; no regular phone calls about stock ideas.
  • Stockbrokers give you more control as you can personally filter out ideas you think won’t work.
  • Investment Managers offer an investment mandate; this is where the investment management service provides a document of what they are offering you in return of managing your portfolio. You will understand what exactly they are targeting over the year, based on what risk, and should they achieve it – then they have fulfilled their service. E.g) the mandate could state that the strategies used and based on 8% volatility (risk), they seek to achieve 14% capital return.
  • Stockbrokers do not offer an future agreements but look to deliver growth during the time you are with them. They are not bound by their performances like investment managers.
  • Investment management firms have a track record for all of the strategies and services used, stockbrokers do not.

Which to choose?

Both services provide professional approaches to investing in the stock markets. Stockbrokers are chosen over investment managers by people who like to be in control and receive financial advice. Stockbrokers generally do not have a systematic approach to the markets but use selective top-down approaches to select stocks.

Investment managers are chosen by investors who want an agreement on their performances over the year and understand the risk up-front. Usually more sophisticated investors that wish to take advantage of the track-record and gain an understanding of the systematic approach used by the investment management firm.

Feel free to learn more.

DISCLAIMER: The above is not considered financial advice or any endorsement to use any particular service. If you wish to use any of the services mentioned, please seek independent advice.

RISK WARNING: Spread betting, CFD, futures and options trading carries a high level of risk to your capital and can result in losses that exceed your initial deposit. They may not be suitable for everyone, so please ensure that you fully understand the risks involved. Past performance of a managed service is not a guide to future performance.

Interactive Technology in Healthcare Education

Healthcare professionals are under pressure to remember, utilize and absorb vast amounts of new or changing information in increasing volume. This surge has led to new and improved computer-based tools for many healthcare activities and to an explosion in the marketplace of tools used in instruction and education of healthcare workers. This article explains the use of interactive technology in healthcare and how this benefits instruction and education of healthcare professionals.

Digital systems that capture images from documents, 35-mm slides, physical samples or specimens, or virtually anything that the camera lens can see, is found in interactive technology. In healthcare, transmitting these images to computers with simple devices or software that will allow the display and integration of educational material into the training environment is easily accommodated.

The method for delivering these images or documents, usually via PowerPoint presentations, photography, videotape or audio presentations can turn a standard Windows PC into a dynamic, interactive, teaching tool. Depending on the type of training environment needed, interactive presentations can be found in the use of liquid crystal displays, large plasma displays, rear projection systems or even whiteboards. Educators can now tailor their courses to their audience’s expectations and needs using any number of these presentation forms.

Effectiveness of interactive learning systems is largely dependent upon the type or form of delivery used in combination with software that is easily used by both novice and expert users. Smaller systems will use a pen or stylus vs. a computer and a mouse where larger systems may use elaborate videoconferencing systems where many participants can be in the virtual classroom at the same time. Many healthcare organizations already utilize small and large types of communication systems routinely in the delivery of quality, high-tech healthcare to patients and their community. Adapting this equipment or having it serve dual purposes is an easy and cost-effective transition.

The era of the blackboards and chalk dust is now a memory for most of us. Interactive technology tools permit the educator to draw on, write on, and annotate data right on the screen as part of their dynamic presentation. In addition, the educator can now annotate their presentation and then save, print and even distribute by email, the contents of the class session to all participants.

The mobility that interactive technology gives the educator in the virtual classroom lends itself to unlimited types of uses and methods for delivery of high quality, interactive, sessions. Participants, too, benefit from easy access to the sessions, improved and more accurate note-taking that can be used later for study and reference. This all leads to greater retention of the learning objectives and enhanced or improved application in the field once the participant returns to the office or department.

Healthcare professionals should look for educators and learning systems that combine ergonomics with interactive technologies that integrate use the user of free text, annotation, images and video clips with the traditional printed materials. Transitions between screens or programs, linking to the Internet and class sessions, downloading or printing of the course materials and saving of files or information for future classes or reference use should be easy and simple to use. The presentation and delivery of the educational material should be efficient and easy to use and tailored to use by both healthcare professionals that have varying levels of technological skills.

Regardless of whether healthcare workers are new to the workplace or seasoned professionals, the learning systems used should assist them with learning new skills, procedures, diagnostic techniques and terminology. Communication between healthcare workers in both local and distant communities is on the rise and the use of interactive technology enables the participants to collaborate and share critical data and information.

Interactive technology can also benefit the bottom line and reduce costs formerly associated with travel or staffing and resources to send workers to local, regional or national meetings. Interactive presentations and systems can also attract and hold the participants interest and attention, enhancing their learning and retention gained from the course(s).

It is no wonder, then, that interactive technology has gained such a strong and prominent position in the education of healthcare workers. Healthcare workers looking for either online, distance or local training should evaluate the presentation and delivery systems used in order to maximize their learning experience.

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Copyright 2005, M. A. Webb. All Rights Reserved